The root of Salvia miltiorrhiza BGE. (Labiatae) (SM), has a bitter and a slightly “cold” property, andis nontoxic. The effect of SM on mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis by anal therapy wasinvestigated. SM inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis 100% with the dose of0.1g/kg by anal treatment. However, SM showed no significant inhibitory effect on the samereaction by oral treatment. SM also inhibited by 79.8% local cutaneous anaphylaxis activated byanti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE by anal treatment. SM dose-dependently inhibited the histaminerelease and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) production from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs)by anti-DNP IgE. These results indicate that anal therapy of SM may be beneficial in the treatmentof systemic and local mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis.