Aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale is reported to have antidiabetic activty. In the presentinvestigation, we studied the effect of aqueous extract of E. littorale and its different fractions i.e.,toluene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions and remaining residual fraction instreptozotocin (STZ)-induced neonatal type 2 diabetic rats. Fasting glucose and insulin levels inNIDDM were significantly (P<0.05) higher than control rats and they were significantlydecreased by treatment with aqueous extract of E. littorale and its n-butanol and ethyl acetatefractions. Results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed that aqueous extract and its n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions significantly (P<0.05) decrease both AUCglucose and AUCinsulinvalues in NIDDM treated groups. Insulin sensitivity (KITT) index of NIDDM control wassignificantly lower as compared to normal control and this was significantly (P<0.05) increasedafter treatment with aqueous extract, its n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions. Treatment withaqueous extract of E. littorale and its n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions lowered the elevatedcholesterol and triglyceride levels observed in NIDDM rats. Treatment with aqueous extract of E.littorale and its n-butanol fraction showed significant decrease in creatinine, urea, SGPT andSGOT levels as compared to NIDDM control rats. However ethyl acetate fraction showedsignificant changes only in creatinine and SGOT levels, and not in the levels of urea, and SGPT ascompared to NIDDM control rats. Treatment with toluene, chloroform and residual fractions of E.littorale did not produce any effect on glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, creatinine, urea,SGPT or SGOT levels as compared to NIDDM control rats. Our data suggest that n-butanol andethyl acetate fractions contain the active compounds which may be responsible for the aboveactivity and associated complications in NIDDM diabetes mellitus.