The antidiabetic efficacy of Enicostemma littorale Blume (chhota chirayata) aqueous extract wasexamined in newly diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients takingonly the extract and was administered as two divided doses, half an hour before meal as 5g ofaqueous extract per single dose. Out of the 20 patients volunteered, 11 successfully completed the2month trial and a significant decrease in fasting & postprandial blood glucose and glycosylatedhaemoglobin levels were observed along with a significant improvement in the antioxidantparameters of the patients. There was also a significant increase in serum insulin levels in 7patients after extract treatment as compared to levels before treatment. Serum total cholesteroland serum triglyceride levels were decreased significantly with a significant increase in serumHDLCholesterol levels. Other vital parameters remained stable and no side effects were observed.This is the first report showing the hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties of theaqueous extract of E. littorale Blume in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients.