Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities.Dementia is one of the aged related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’sdisease. Nootropic agents like piracetam and cholinesterase inhibitors like Donepezil® are used insituations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities, but the resulting side-effectsassociated with these agents have limited their utility. Foeniculum (F.) vulgare Linn. is widely usedin Indian traditional systems of medicines and also as a house remedy for nervous debility. Thepresent work was undertaken to assess the potential of F. vulgare as a nootropic and anti-cholinesterase agent in mice. Exteroceptive behavioral models such as Elevated plus maze andPassive avoidance paradigm were employed to assess short term and long term memory in mice.To delineate the possible mechanism through which F. vulgare elicits the anti-amnesic effects, itsinfluence on central cholinergic activity was studied by estimating the whole brain acetylcholinesteraseactivity. Pretreatment of methanolic extract of fruits of F. vulgare Linn. for 8 successive days,ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) and aging induced memory deficits inmice. F. vulgare extract significantly decreased transfer latencies of young mice and aged mice,increased step down latency and exhibited significant anti-acetyl cholinesterase effects, whencompared to piracetam, scopolamine and control groups of mice. F. vulgare might prove to be auseful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in the elderly.