Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (AR) is used in traditional oriental medicine for various medicinal purposes.However, the exact mechanism that accounts for the anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory effects of the ARis still not fully understood. The aim of the present study is to elucidate whether and how AR modulatesthe allergic reactions in vivo, and inflammatory reaction in vitro. In this study, we showed that ARsignificantly decreased compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis, paw oedema, and histaminerelease from preparation of rat peritoneal mast cells. Also, AR inhibited the expression ofinflammatory cytokine in PMA plus A23187-stimulated human mast cells (HMC-1). In addition, weshowed that anti-inflammatory mechanism of AR is through suppression of nuclear factor-κBactivation and IκB-α degradation. These results provided new insight into the pharmacologicalactions of AR as a potential molecule for therapy of inflammatory allergic diseases.