The utility of Lepidium sativum Linn (Garden cress) as a medicinal plant has increased many foldover a period of time. A survey of literature relating to the medicinal uses of L.sativum reveals it tobe one of the widely used medicinal plants. It finds place in folklore medicine, Ayurveda, Unaniand other indigenous systems of medicine. Following a large number of claims on the wide rangeof traditional medicinal properties of the plant, considerable efforts have been made to verify itsefficacy as a curative agent through pharmacological investigations and clinical trials. In thisarticle, a comprehensive account of the traditional uses, phytochemical investigation andtherapeutic potential of Lepidium sativum is presented.