In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess whether the effect of benzene extract ofOcimum sanctum leaves on the ultrastructural changes in the epithelial cells of the caudaepididymis, its subsequent recovery in the seminiferous epithelium and fertility of male albinorats. Wistar strain male albino rats were orally administered benzene extract of 250 mg/kg bodyweight of O. sanctum leaves followed by subsequent recovery maintaining suitable controls for 48days. Results indicate decrease in the weights of testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles. Otheraccessory organs were not affected. Total count, cell and nuclei diameters of germ cells andLeydig cells were reduced. Cauda epididymis exhibited significant reduction in epithelial heightand nuclei diameter of epithelial cells. Cells showed vacuolization with exhibit of signs ofdegeneration. Ultra study revealed that, in general, the cauda epididymis was affected and inparticular, the principal, clear and basal cells were highly disturbed. Further, there was decreasein the size of lipid droplets, mitochondria, Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum andaccumulation of lysosomal bodies. Fertility performance test showed no implantation in femalerats mated with O. sanctum treated rats. Moreover, their recovery after withdrawal of treatmentwas observed suggesting that the effect of the treatment is transient and reversible. A recoveryperiod resulted in normal spermatogenesis and fertility, suggesting reversible antispermatogenicand antifertility effects of the plant.