Bauhinia variegata Linn (Mountain Ebony) is a medium-sized, deciduous tree, found throughoutIndia, ascending to an altitude of 1,300 m in the Himalayas. The plant is widely used by the tribalsthroughout India and popular in various indigenous systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unaniand Homoeopathy. Following the various traditional claims on utility of this plant in curingnumber of diseases, considerable efforts have been made by researchers to verify its utilitythrough pharmacological screenings. The notable biological activities reported are anthelmintic,antiulcer, antitumour, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antigoitrogenic, hepatoprotective andhaemagglutination. Industrially, the plant is widely used for the manufacture of wood woolboard, production of tannin, oil, gum and fibre. The plant is also utilized for afforestation toconserve the nature. In this article, a comprehensive account of the cultivation, microscopy,phytochemical investigation, traditional and biologically evaluated medicinal uses of B variegatais presented.