The aerial parts of methanol extract of Oxystelma esculentum (MEOE) (Asclepiadaceae) was evaluated forin vitro lipid peroxidation and antimicrobial activity. Lipid peroxidation was assayed by thechange in optical density of the various concentrations (20 - 320 µg/ml) and the percentageinhibition was estimated. Ascorbate/FeSO4-induced peroxidation was inhibited by MEOE andstandard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and the percentage inhibition of the methanol extractwas increased with dose dependent manner. The IC50 value of the MEOE, BHA and BHT for lipidperoxidation was found to be 135.24 µg/ml, 25.62 µg/ml and 17.13 µg/ml, respectively. Theantimicrobial activity of MEOE was determined by disc diffusion method with three gram-positive, five gram-negative and two fungal microorganisms. MEOE exhibited the antimicrobialactivity against the tested microorganisms except Salmonella typhimurium (MTCC 98). In presentstudy, it is concluded that MEOE has significant effect in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation andpossesses good antimicrobial activity.